What is CBD?

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid discovered in the 1940s. It is one of some 113 identified cannabinoids in cannabis plants, accounting for up to 40% of the plant's extract. As of 2018, preliminary clinical research on cannabidiol included studies of anxiety, cognition, stress, movement disorders, and pain.
Cannabidiol can be taken into the body in multiple different ways, including by inhalation of cannabis smoke or vapor, as an aerosol spray into the cheek, and by mouth. It may be supplied as CBD oil containing only CBD as the active ingredient (no added tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] or terpenes), a full-plant CBD-dominant hemp extract oil, capsules, dried cannabis, or as a prescription liquid solution CBD does not have the same psychoactivity as THC, and may affect the actions of THC. Although in vitro studies indicate CBD may interact with different biological targets, including cannabinoid receptors and other neurotransmitter receptors. In the United States, the cannabidiol drug Epidiolex has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of two epilepsy disorders.

The Endocannabinoid System: Discovered in the 20th Century, the endocannabinoid system is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids that are neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors in the mammalian brain and body. CBD is one of the primary cannabinoids found in hemp. These cannabinoid receptors play a pivotal role in physiological processes such as mood, memory and pain. There are two cannabinoid receptors - CB1 and CB2 that are located on cells throughout the body.

What are CB1 & CB2 receptors?
CB1 receptors are primarily located on nerve cells in the brain, spinal cord and central nervous system. They are very abundant in the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and hippocampus. The CB1 receptors have been found to play a role in memory processing, motor regulation, pain sensation, mood, and sleep.

CB2 receptors are primarily found on cells in the immune system and its associated structures. When activated, they stimulate cells in the immune system and its associated structures. When activated, they stimulate a response that fights inflammation, which can reduce pain and minimize damage to tissues

Where CB1 recpetors have been found:

  • BRAINSTEM (neocortex, piriform cortex, hippocampus, amygdala)
  • THYROID endocrine gland UPPER AIRWAYS of mammals
  • BRAIN / CNS / SPINAL CORD CORTICAL REGIONS / CEREBELLUM
  • LIVER kupffer cells (macrophage immune cells), hepatocytes (liver cell), hepatic stellate cells (fat storage cell)
  • HYPOTHALAMUS / OLFACTORY BULB endocrine gland / Globus pallidus, substantia nigra pars, reticulata / (endocrine-brain link CB1)
  • ADRENALS / BASAL GANGLIA / THALAMUS / PITUITARY
  • OVARIES gonads and endocrine gland
  • UTERUS myometrium
  • PROSTATE epithelial and smooth muscle cells
  • TESTES gonads and endocrine gland CB1): Leydig cells; sperm cells
Where CB2 recpetors have been found:
  • Eyes
  • Stomach
  • Heart
  • Pancreas
  • Digestive tract
  • Bone
  • The brain:
  • Basal Ganglia
  • Cerebral cortex (higher cognitive function)
  • Hypothalamus (appetite)
  • Cerebellum (movement)
  • Hippocampus (leaning, memory, stress)
  • Medulla (nausea and chemoreceptor)
  • Spinal cord (pain)

How CB1 & CB2 receptors work: Cannabinoids help coordinate and regulate how we feel and think by binding with the endocannabinoid system CB1 and CB2 receptors. Fitting like puzzle pieces, cannabinoids are designed to link together with the cannabinoid receptors. Linking activates the receiving neuron into action, triggering a set of events to pass along the message and carry out a variety of cellular responses needed for homeostasis and healthy functioning.